Toxicology

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Toxicology

Toxicology (from the Greek words τοξικός - toxicos "poisonous" and logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.

Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect.Ibn Wahshiya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century.

Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale.

In 1850 Jean Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hypolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning with nicotine

Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541) (also referred to as Paracelsus, from his belief that his studies were above or beyond the work of Celsus - a Roman physician from the first century) is also considered "the father" of toxicology. He is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle Dinge sind Gift und nichts ist ohne Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist." which translates as, "All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison." This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum".

The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. The chief criterion regarding the toxicity of a chemical is the dose, i.e. the amount of exposure to the substance. All substances are toxic under the right conditions. The term LD50 refers to the dose of a toxic substance that kills 50 percent of a test population (typically rats or other surrogates when the test concerns human toxicity). LD50 estimations in animals are no longer required for regulatory submissions as a part of pre-clinical development package.[citation needed]

The conventional relationship (more exposure equals higher risk) has been challenged in the study of endocrine disruptors.

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Matching Toxicology Colleges

Name
University of California-Berkeley
Four or more years; Public; $34,098 average out-state tuition; $11,220 average in-state tuition
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus
Four or more years; Public; $27,206 average out-state tuition; $15,124 average in-state tuition
University of Louisiana-Monroe
Four or more years; Public; $11,424 average out-state tuition; $3,478 average in-state tuition
St John's University-New York
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $33,235 average out-state tuition; $33,235 average in-state tuition
Texas Tech University
Four or more years; Public; $12,211 average out-state tuition; $4,699 average in-state tuition
University of Rochester
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $41,040 average out-state tuition; $41,040 average in-state tuition
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Four or more years; Public; $17,988 average out-state tuition; $5,153 average in-state tuition

Toxicology Scholarships

Name Amount Deadline
Monsanto STEM Fellowship Up to $50,000 May 01, 2017
Monsanto Graduate Student Scholarship Up to $25,000 May 01, 2017
Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship $24,000 January 10, 2017
William R. Goldfarb Memorial Scholarship $10,000 January 31, 2017
FIRST Scholarship - University of Advancing Technology $10,000 May 24, 2017
APIASF/Southern California Edison Scholarship $2,500 January 11, 2017
ACS Scholars Program Up to $5,000 March 01, 2017
Dean of Science Scholarship for Continuing Students - IUPUI Up to $2,500 May 15, 2017
Downing Science Scholarship $2,000 March 02, 2017
Hans P. Loewen Scholarship $2,000 February 01, 2017