Taxation

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Taxation

To tax (from the Latin taxo; "I estimate") is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law.

Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities. Taxes consist of direct tax or indirect tax, and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent (often but not always unpaid labour). A tax may be defined as a "pecuniary burden laid upon individuals or property owners to support the government [...] a payment exacted by legislative authority." A tax "is not a voluntary payment or donation, but an enforced contribution, exacted pursuant to legislative authority" and is "any contribution imposed by government [...] whether under the name of toll, tribute, tallage, gabel, impost, duty, custom, excise, subsidy, aid, supply, or other name."

The legal definition and the economic definition of taxes differ in that economists do not consider many transfers to governments to be taxes. For example, some transfers to the public sector are comparable to prices. Examples include tuition at public universities and fees for utilities provided by local governments. Governments also obtain resources by creating money (e.g., printing bills and minting coins), through voluntary gifts (e.g., contributions to public universities and museums), by imposing penalties (e.g., traffic fines), by borrowing, and by confiscating wealth. From the view of economists, a tax is a non-penal, yet compulsory transfer of resources from the private to the public sector levied on a basis of predetermined criteria and without reference to specific benefit received.

In modern taxation systems, taxes are levied in money; but, in-kind and corvée taxation are characteristic of traditional or pre-capitalist states and their functional equivalents. The method of taxation and the government expenditure of taxes raised is often highly debated in politics and economics. Tax collection is performed by a government agency such as Canada Revenue Agency, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States, or Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC) in the UK. When taxes are not fully paid, civil penalties (such as fines or forfeiture) or criminal penalties (such as incarceration) may be imposed on the non-paying entity or individual.

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Matching Taxation Colleges

Name
Golden Gate University-San Francisco
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $13,920 average out-state tuition; $13,920 average in-state tuition
Bentley University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $36,840 average out-state tuition; $36,840 average in-state tuition
University of Southern California
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $42,162 average out-state tuition; $42,162 average in-state tuition
CUNY Bernard M Baruch College
Four or more years; Public; $11,040 average out-state tuition; $5,130 average in-state tuition
St John's University-New York
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $33,235 average out-state tuition; $33,235 average in-state tuition
Fordham University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $39,235 average out-state tuition; $39,235 average in-state tuition
Villanova University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $40,530 average out-state tuition; $40,530 average in-state tuition

Taxation Scholarships

Name Amount Deadline
Urban Fellows Program $30,000 January 13, 2017
Catharine Elizabeth Edmondson Memorial Scholarship Up to $20,400 March 01, 2017
AICPA Fellowship for Minority Doctoral Students Up to $12,000 May 15, 2017
William R. Goldfarb Memorial Scholarship $10,000 January 31, 2017
Myron Brown Ludlow Scholarship $8,000 March 01, 2017
APSU Accounting Alumni Scholarship Up to $5,700 March 01, 2017
John L. Carey Scholarship $5,000 April 01, 2017
AICPA Minority Scholarship Up to $5,000 April 01, 2017
Clark E. DeHaven Scholarship $5,000 February 15, 2017
James Abbott Hoeven Jr. and Sr. Memorial Scholarship $4,000 March 01, 2017