Ecology

Provided by

Ecology

Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems. Ecosystems are hierarchical systems that are organized into a graded series of regularly interacting and semi-independent parts (e.g., species) that aggregate into higher orders of complex integrated wholes (e.g., communities). Ecosystems are sustained by the biodiversity within them. Biodiversity is the full-scale of life and its processes, including genes, species and ecosystems forming lineages that integrate into a complex and regenerative spatial arrangement of types, forms, and interactions. Ecosystems create biophysical feedback mechanisms between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of the planet. These feedback loops regulate and sustain local communities, continental climate systems, and global biogeochemical cycles. The biological organization of life self-organizes into layers of emergent whole systems that function according to nonreducible properties called holism. This means that higher order patterns of a whole functional system, such as an ecosystem, cannot be predicted or understood by a simple summation of the parts. "New properties emerge because the components interact, not because the basic nature of the components is changed.":8

Ecology is a sub-discipline of biology, the study of life. The word "ecology" ("Ökologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919). Ancient philosophers of Greece, including Hippocrates and Aristotle, were among the earliest to record notes and observations on the natural history of plants and animals. Modern ecology branched out of natural history and matured into a more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Charles Darwin's evolutionary treatise including the concept of adaptation, as it was introduced in 1859, is a pivotal cornerstone in modern ecological theory. Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history or environmental science. It is closely related to physiology, evolutionary biology, genetics and ethology. An understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function is an important focus area in ecological studies. Ecologists seek to explain:

Ecology is a human science as well. There are many practical applications of ecology in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science and human social interaction (human ecology). Ecosystems sustain every life-supporting function on the planet, including climate regulation, water filtration, soil formation (pedogenesis), food, fibers, medicines, erosion control, and many other natural features of scientific, historical or spiritual value.

* Description provided by Wikipedia under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license. More

Matching Ecology Colleges

Name
University of Maryland-College Park
Four or more years; Public; $24,337 average out-state tuition; $6,966 average in-state tuition
Princeton University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $37,000 average out-state tuition; $37,000 average in-state tuition
New York University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $39,344 average out-state tuition; $39,344 average in-state tuition
Towson University
Four or more years; Public; $17,008 average out-state tuition; $5,496 average in-state tuition
University of California-Santa Cruz
Four or more years; Public; $34,098 average out-state tuition; $11,220 average in-state tuition
Iowa State University
Four or more years; Public; $18,280 average out-state tuition; $6,408 average in-state tuition
Oklahoma State University-Main Campus
Four or more years; Public; $15,651 average out-state tuition; $4,303 average in-state tuition

Ecology Scholarships

Name Amount Deadline
Monsanto STEM Fellowship Up to $50,000 May 01, 2017
FIRST Scholarship - Tulane University $30,000 December 14, 2016
Monsanto Graduate Student Scholarship Up to $25,000 May 01, 2017
Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship $24,000 January 10, 2017
Dr. Gary M. Moore Great Plan Scholarship $20,000 February 01, 2017
Swenson Family Foundation Scholarship $14,000 March 15, 2017
William R. Goldfarb Memorial Scholarship $10,000 January 31, 2017
Bart Kamen Memorial FIRST Scholarship $10,000 January 31, 2017
FIRST Scholarship - Merrimack College $10,000 February 28, 2017
FIRST Scholarship - University of Advancing Technology $10,000 May 24, 2017