Agriculture

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Agriculture

Agriculture (also called farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite, but generally speaking refers to human activities.

The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e.g. permaculture or organic agriculture).

Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.

The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. In the 21st century, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. Other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methane from biomass, ethanol, and biodiesel. Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products.

In 2007, one third of the world's workers were employed in agriculture. The services sector has overtaken agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide. Despite the size of its workforce, agricultural production accounts for less than five percent of the gross world product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products).

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Matching Agriculture Colleges

Name
Texas A & M University-College Station
Four or more years; Public; $20,687 average out-state tuition; $5,297 average in-state tuition
University of Florida
Four or more years; Public; $25,276 average out-state tuition; $4,060 average in-state tuition
Cornell University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $41,325 average out-state tuition; $41,325 average in-state tuition
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Four or more years; Public; $27,219 average out-state tuition; $11,847 average in-state tuition
California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo
Four or more years; Public; $16,632 average out-state tuition; $5,472 average in-state tuition
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Four or more years; Public; $17,988 average out-state tuition; $5,153 average in-state tuition
Purdue University-Main Campus
Four or more years; Public; $27,061 average out-state tuition; $8,893 average in-state tuition

Agriculture Related Scholarships

Name Amount Deadline
John H. Daniels Fellowship $24000 January 01, 2015
National Potato Council Graduate Student Scholarship $10000 June 30, 2015
Blosser Brothers (Lee and John ) Scholarship $8400 April 15, 2015
David M. Gardner Memorial Scholarship - WCCC $6400 February 20, 2015
Harold S. and Lester E. Gardner Memorial Scholarship $5000 March 01, 2015
Thermo Scientific Pierce Scholarship $10000 December 29, 2014
McKnight Doctoral Fellowship $12000 January 15, 2015
Williamson Scholarship for Excellence In Agriculture $5000 February 01, 2015
Frederick and Demi Seguritan Scholarship $5000 February 20, 2015
Udall Scholarship $5000 March 04, 2015